Chef and HPE OneView


Currently we’re about 50% of the way through 2016 and i’ve been very privileged to spend a lot of the year working with Chef and not just their software but also presenting with them throughout Europe. All of that bringing us up to the current point where last week I was presenting at HPE TSS (Technology Solutions Summit) around HPE OneView and Chef (picture above :-)). In the last six months i’ve worked a lot with the HPE OneView Chef Provisioning driver  and recently been contributing a lot of changes that have brought the driver version up to 1.20 (as of June 2016). I’ve struggled a little bit with the documentation around Chef Provisioning, so I though it best to write up something around Chef Provisioning and how it works with HPE OneView.

Chef Provisioning

So quite simply, Chef Provisioning is a library that is specifically designed for allowing chef to automate the provisioning of server infrastructure (whether that be physical infrastructure i.e. Servers or virtual infrastructure from vSphere VMs to AWS compute). This library provides the ability to have machine resources that describe the logical make up of a provisioned resource e.g. Operating System, Infrastructure/VM Template, Server Configuration
The Provisioning library can then make use of drivers that extend functionality by allowing Chef to interact with specific end points such as vCenter or AWS. These drivers provide specific driver options that allow the finite configuration of a Chef Machine.

To recap:
Machine resource defines a machine resource inside Chef and can also have additional recipes that will be run in these machines.
Provisioning Drivers extend a machine resource so that Chef can interact with various infrastructure providers. With HPE OneView the driver provides the capability to log into OneView and create Server Profiles from Templates and apply them to server hardware.

Example Recipe:

machine 'web01' do
action :allocate # Action to be performed on this server

  machine_options :driver_options => { # Specific HPE OneView driver options
   :server_template => 'ChefWebServer', # Name of OneView Template
   :host_name => 'chef-http-01', # Name to be applied to Server Profile
   :server_location => 'Encl1, bay 11' # Location of Server Hardware


More information around the Chef Provisioning driver along with examples of using it with things like AWS, Vagrant, Azure, VMware etc. can be found on their GitHub site.

API Interactions

Some vendors have taken the approach to have automation agents (Chef clients) hosted inside various infrastructure components such as network switches etc.. I can only assume that this was the only method that existed that would allow Infrastructure automation tools to configure their devices. The HPE OneView Unified API provides a stable/versioned API that Chef and it’s associated Chef provisioning driver can interact with (typically over Https) that doesn’t require either side to maintain for reasons of compatibility.

The diagram below depicts recipes that make use of Chef Provisioning, these have to be run locally (using the -z) command so that they can make use of the provisioning libraries and associated drivers that have to be installed on a Chef workstation. All of the machines provisioned will then be added into the Chef Server for auditing purposes etc..


HP OneView – Part 2: Server Profiles

Apologies for the delay I was busy..

What is a Server Profile

The “Server Profile” is the defining phrase that comes to mind when thinking about the SDDC (Software Defined Data Centre). It allows a server administrator to define a hardware identity or configuration (MAC addresses, WWNN, BIOS, Boot, RAID config etc.) in software and then apply this to a “blank” server.

This brings a number of key advantages:

  • Pre-designed hardware identities allow configuration tasks to be pre-provisioned before hardware deployment (SAN zoning, firewall ACLs etc..)
  • Designated addresses allow easier identification e.g.  aa:bb:cc:dd:01:01 = Management /  aa:bb:cc:dd:02:01 = Production
  • Server failure/replacement doesn’t require upstream changes, software identity (server profile) is applied and all previous configuration is still relevant.


Following on from the previous HP OneView post, this is a continuation of the same simple VMware vSphere deployment. As before, a good design should exist before implementation, so again i’ve embedded a diagram detailing where and how these networks are going to be defined to the virtual interfaces on a blade. VMware OneView Service Profiles

Quite Simply:

  • Two virtual interfaces defined for all of the Service networks.
  • Two virtual interfaces defined for the Production networks.
  • Two HBAs on each fabric, providing resilience for Fibre Channel traffic.

As mentioned, this is a simple design for a vSphere host but allows expansion in the future with the ability to define a further virtual interface on each physical interface inside the blade.


EVO:RAIL – LoudMouth aka Zeroconf

What is Zeroconf?

Zeroconf was first proposed in November 1999 and finalised in 2003 and has found the largest adoption in Mac OS products, nearly all networked printers and other network device vendors. The most obvious and recognisable implementation of zeroconf is bonjour, which has been part of Mac OS since version 9 and is used to provide a number of shared network services. The basics of Zeroconf are explained quite simply on with the following (abbreviated statement) “making it possible to take two laptop computers, and connect them … without needing a man in a white lab coat to set it all up for you”.

Basically zeroconf allows a server/appliance or client device to discover one another without any networking configuration. It is comparable to DHCP in some regards in that a computer with no network configuration can send out a DHCP request (essentially asking to be configured by the DHCP server), the response will be an assigned address and further configuration allowing communication on the network. Where it differs is that zeroconf also allows for advertisement of services (time capsule, printer services, iTunes shared libraries etc.), it also can advertise small amounts of data to identify itself as a type of device.

A Time machine advertisement over zeroconf: (MAC address removed)

[dan@mgmt ~]$ avahi-browse -r -a -p -t | grep TimeMachine
+;eth0;IPv4;WDMyCloud;Apple TimeMachine;local
=;eth0;IPv4;WDMyCloud;Apple TimeMachine;local;WDMyCloud.local;;9;"dk0=adVN=TimeMachineBackup,adVF=0x83" "sys=waMA=00:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx,adVF=0x100"

How the EVO:RAIL team are using Zeroconf

From recollection of the deep-dive sessions, I may have mistaken the point (corrections welcome).

Zeroconf has found the largest adoption in networked printers and apple bonjour services, however in the server deployment area a combination of DHCP and MAC address matching is more commonly used (Auto deploy or kickstart from PXE boot).

The EVO:RAIL team have implemented a Zeroconf daemon that lives inside every vSphere instance and inside the VCSA instance. The daemon inside the VCSA wasn’t really explained however the vSphere daemon instances allow the EVO:RAIL engine to discover them and take the necessary steps to automate their configuration.

Implementing Zeroconf inside vSphere(esxi)

The EVO:RAIL team had to develop their own zeroconf daemon named loudmouth that is coded entirely in python. The reason behind this was explained in one of the technical deep dives, the problem being that the majority of pre-existing zeroconf implementations have dependancies on various linux shared libraries.

/lib # ls *so | wc -l
/lib # uname -a
VMkernel 5.5.0 #1 SMP Release build-1331820 Sep 18 2013 23:08:31 x86_64 GNU/Linux
[dan@mgmt lib]$ ls *so | wc -l
[dan@mgmt lib]$ uname -a
Linux 3.8.7-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Apr 13 09:01:47 CEST 2013 x86_64 GNU/Linux

As the quick example above shows (32bit libs) a vSphere instance contains only a few elf based libraries providing a limited subset of shared functionality. This means that whilst elf based binaries can be moved from a linux distribution over to a vSphere instance, the chance is that a requirement on a shared library won’t be met. Further more building a static binary possibly won’t help as the VMKernel (VMwares kernel implementation)doesn’t implement the full set of linux syscalls, which makes sense as it’s not an OS implementation the userland area of the vSphere is purely for management of the hypervisor. The biggest issue that an implementation of zeroconf which relies on UDP and datagrams is the lack of implementaion of IP_PKTINFO.

This rules out avahi, Zero Conf IP (zcif), and linux implementations of mDnsResponder.

What about loudmouth?

Unfortunately it is yet to be said if any components of EVO:RAIL will be open sourced or back ported to vSphere, so whilst VMware have a zeroconf implementation for vSphere it is likely it will remain proprietary.

What next…

I’ve improved on where I’ve been with my daemon, however i’m hoping to upload it to github sooner rather than later. Unfortunately work has occupied most of the weekend and most evenings so far .. that tied with catching up on episodes of elementary and dealing with endless segfaults as I add any simple functionality have slowed the progress more than I was expecting.

Also I decided to finish writing up this post, which took most of this evening 😐

Debugging on vSphere

A summary of what to expect inside vSphere can be read here and there is no point duplicating existing information ( More importantly when dealing with the vSphere userland libraries or more accurately lack of, then the use of strace is hugely valuable. More details on strace can be found here (

EVO:RAIL – “Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery”

EVO:RAIL Overview

At VMworld ’14 I managed to catch a few excellent sessions on EVO:RAIL including the deep dive session + Q&A that really explained the architecture that makes up the EVO:RAIL appliance. The EVO:RAIL appliance is only built by authorised vendors or as VMware call them QEPs (Qualified EVO:RAIL Partners) from a hardware specification that is determined by VMware.

VMW-LOGO-EVO-Rail-108Also the EVO:RAIL software/engine is provided to the QEPs for them to install and requires a built in hardware ID (also provided by the QEPs) in order for the engine to work correctly. This means currently that the EVO:RAIL appliance is a sealed environment that has only been designed to exist on pre-determined hardware and that anyone wanting to use any of this functionality on their pre-existing infrastructure will be unable to do so.

So what are the components of EVO:RAIL:
  • QEP hardware (a 2U appliance that has four separate compute nodes)
  • Loudmouth, a zeroconf daemon written in python that also detects the hardware ID
  • EVO:RAIL engine that consists of python/bash scripts, a comprehensive UI and automation ability for deployment
  • VCSA appliance (contains loudmouth, EVO:RAIL) this is pre-installed on one node in every appliance.
How is it built and how is it configured:EVO Rail UI

The idea is that a customer will speak to their account manager at a QEP place an order on a single SKU and provide some simple configuration details. The vendor then will pre-provision the four nodes with the EVO:RAIL version of vSphere, one of these nodes will be also provisioned with the VCSA appliance (also the EVO:RAIL version). The VCSA node will be configured with some IP addresses provided by the customer so that they can complete the configuration once the appliance has been racked.  The EVO:RAIL engine combined with the loudmouth daemon will detect the remaining nodes in the appliance and allow them to be configured, the same goes for addition appliances (maximum 4) that are added.

This simplified UI that was crafted by Jehad Affoneh and provides a HTML5 + web sockets interface that provides real-time information for the end-user as they complete the EVO:RAIL configuration. Once the initial configuration (networking/passwords etc.) is complete the EVO engine will then handle the automation of the following tasks:

  1. vSphere instance configuration (hostnames, passwords, network configuration)
  2. Deploy and configure the VCSA (once complete add in the vSphere instances, and configure VSAN)
  3. Tidy up
  4. Re-direct user to the EVO:RAIL simplified interface for VM deployment.



The final screen that the user is presented with is the EVO:RAIL simplified interface, this is a “reduced functionality” user interface that allows people to complete simple tasks such as deploy a simple VM (from simplified pre-determined parameters such as sizing) or investigate the health of vSphere host. The “real” management interface i.e. vCenter is still there in the back ground and the EVO:RAIL interface still has to interact with it through the awful vCenter SOAP SDK (which hopefully will change in the next releases, thus requiring a re-write for the EVO engine).This vCenter can still be accessed through the URL on port 9443, direct with the infrastructure client or alternatively there is a small link in the EVO interface in the top right hand corner.

What next?

EVO:RAIL has been described by JP Morgan with – “EVO products could be an iPhone moment for enterprise use of cloud computing”. I see this in two ways:

Incredible simplification and ease of use, deployment of four nodes is meant to take no more that fifteen minutes. The simplified interface for VM deployments takes 3-4 clicks and your virtual machine is ready to use. The use of the LoudMouth service truly makes deployment plug and play as more capacity is added.

The walled garden, the comparison to the iPhone covers this point perfectly as this product is a closed off product and only available to authorised partners. There are some really clever design ideas here that could really be expanded on and back ported to the existing vSphere to provide some really great functionality.

  • Large scale deployment with the use of the LoudMouth daemon for discovery
  • Disaster recovery would be simplified again via the LoudMouth daemon advertising where virtual machines are located (in the event that vCenter doesn’t auto re-start after failure).


After speaking with the designer of the UI and sitting through the deep dive sessions there were a few design decisions or “short cuts” that had to be taken in order to get functionality to work, I decided to see what I could improve or at least imitate in my vSphere lab. To begin with I started with the zeroconf agent and how it could be implemented or improved upon, in EVO:RAIL this had to be written from scratch in python due to the development team not managing to get any pre-existing solution (which is understandable AVAHI is hideous and has dependencies on everything).

So I introduce “boaster” which is a tiny daemon written in C that handles simple mDNS service announcement, it’s only a PoC however I intend to add more functionality in the next few days. At the moment a vSphere hypervisor will advertise itself and it’s DHCP address to a bonjour browser or avahi-browse..



.. More to follow.

Layer 2 over Layer 3 with vSwitch and Mikrotik virtual routers

I’ve trialled a number of different ideas to have a number of different vSwitches that have virtual machines attached, when dealing with a vSphere host that had a single interface. The problem lies in that only one of your vSwitches has a physical interface (uplink) present, which obviously means that traffic can go between the virtual machines on that vSwitch but can’t go northbound to other devices on the network. I decided to give the Mikrotik virtual router a go as it’s requirements are so tiny it doesn’t have a noticeable footprint on my small infrastructure (the virtual routers require 64MB of ram).

Using the two software routers it is possible to bridge interfaces on numerous vSwitches and then use EoIP to create another layer 2 bridge northbound over layer 3. In a simple example we will use two simple vSphere hosts (01 / 02), in real life both are a pair of Gigabyte Brix hosts that whilst good for small lab environments only have a single Gigabit interface. This is limiting with regards to what network based lab environments you can put together as any vSwitch that doesn’t have a physical interface can’t broadcast traffic anywhere other than inside that vSwitch and having different configurations on each host means that vmotion will break the hosts network connectivity.

Below is the configuration I currently have:

layer2 over layer3


Although not explicitly mentioned in the diagram the interface on vSwitch0 is ether1, this interface will be on the same vSwitch that has a physical interface and thus will allow outbound traffic from the esxi host. This interface will need configuring to enable connectivity to the switch and also to route out to the internet (if required).

 Configuring router01

Configure ether1

Enable the interface and assign a reachable address (

/interface enable ether1
/ip address add address= interface=ether1 comment="External Interface"

Also add another interface that will be used as an EoIP end point.

/ip address add address= interface=ether1 comment="EoIP endPoint"

Adding a default gateway ( which is most peoples router.

/ip route add dst-address= gateway=

Create an Ethernet over IP interface

This EoIP interface is required to encapsulate layer2 frames into layer3 packets that can be routed etc..

/interface eoip add comment="eoip interface" name="eoip01" remote-address= tunnel-id=1

Create a bridge and add interfaces

The bridge is required for allowing layer2 traffic between interfaces that will sit on the different vSwitches.

/interface bridge add comment="Bridge between vmnics" name=esx-bridge protocol-mode=rstp
/interface bridge port add bridge=esx-bridge interface=eoip01
/interface bridge port add bridge=esx-bridge interface=ether2


 Configuring router02

Configure ether1

Enable the interface and assign a reachable address (

/interface enable ether1
/ip address add address= interface=ether1 comment="External Interface"

Also add another interface that will be used as an EoIP end point.

/ip address add address= interface=ether1 comment="EoIP endPoint"

Adding a default gateway ( which is most peoples router.

/ip route add dst-address= gateway=

Create an Ethernet over IP interface

This EoIP interface is required to encapsulate layer2 frames into layer3 packets that can be routed etc..

/interface eoip add comment="eoip interface" name="eoip01" remote-address= tunnel-id=1

Create a bridge and add interfaces

The bridge is required for allowing layer2 traffic between interfaces that will sit on the different vSwitches.

/interface bridge add comment="Bridge between vmnics" name=esx-bridge protocol-mode=rstp
/interface bridge port add bridge=esx-bridge interface=eoip01
/interface bridge port add bridge=esx-bridge interface=ether2

 Testing and DHCP on vSwitch1

Connectivity between the two switches can be tested by pinging the alternative EoIP end points from either host.

e.g. router01 pinging and vice-versa

The final testing is placing DHCP on your vSwitch1 interface and ensuring that clients on both sides of the network receive DHCP leases.

Creating the DHCP pool

/ip pool add name=vswitch1_pool  ranges

Creating the DHCP server

/ip dhcp-server add address-pool=vswitch1_pool disabled=no interface=ether2 name=vswitch1_dhcp



ESXi v4.1 SFTP access


This is a 32bit binary, which I think needs some pretty old kernel version. Hence it only works on 4.0, I will try and get an updated release for 4,1 (*note) ESXi 5 comes with sftp-server already.


I came across something interesting while fiddling earlier, after spending about 2 hours building a static release of openssh server that was going to replace dropbear. I’d gotten to a point where I could build a i386 release of the binaries with no random library requirements and sshd would start and listen on a port defined in /etc/ssh/sshd_config. unfortunately starting ssh in debug mode allowed me to see numerous glibc errors during connections and explain why I couldn’t connect. At this point I don’t think there is any real way of replacing dropbear with a complete openssh solution even statically linking. Even testing the openssh sftp binary that had been compiled showed that it wasn’t coping with a system call not returning UIDs correctly meaning that it would report a FATAL error and close continually.

Given openssh wasn’t going to be replaced I researched about dropbear and if there was a newer version perhaps with sftp, unfortunately not. Eventually I came across notes on a blog mentioning that dropbear “supports” openssh sftp. After restoring ESXi back to its default filesystem settings (ssh enabled) it appears the attempting to sftp to esxi returns the following error.

ash: /sbin/sftp-server: not found
Connection closed

After compiling a slightly older version of openssh (static) I found a release of sftp-server that will once placed in /sbin on ESXi allows full usage of sftp (including sshfs mounting) binary below.









File access in ESXi 4.1 (nfs and tcp)

I’ve had numerous occasions were i’ve needed to upload files to the actual file systems on an esxi system, the only ‘proper’ method is using the abysmal virtual infrastructure client and working mainly on a mac means I need to use VMware Fusion for windows to run the client to connect to the server (overkill). So it’s possible to enable ssh access to the server using the tech support menu, which allows access to the underlying hypervisor and it’s file systems and therefore it’s possible to scp files to the filesystems again this is quite slow and overkill due to the encryption being used. Also due to dropbear being used for the ssh it doesn’t use sftp, which means that you can’t mount the filesystems ala. FUSE and sshfs.

I should say at this point, the goal of all this was to allow me to keep all my ISOs on one server and be able to access them from everywhere also, I wanted a PXE server to be able to access the ISOs and loopback mount them and then present the contents via NFS to the installers started by PXE.

So looking around I found some ftp binaries that should work on ESXi, given that the console access for ESXi is done with busybox there is no file command to determine what binary type the files are so I was unaware of what binaries I could run inside ESXi. This all worked fine following the instructions located on the website here however a few of the instructions are a little bit incorrect such as the path to tcpd is incorrect in inetd, however i’ll leave you to fix that. So on the PXE server using FUSE again and curlftpfs to mount the filesystem and this revealed a glaring bug as soon as I loop back mounted the first ISO. Unfortunately the problem lies in the fact that curlftpfs will use memory to store the file as it downloads it for access by FUSE, so trying to open a 4GB DVD ISO quickly exhausted my PXE servers memory and then it became unresponsive, great.

Further research turned up a blog post about some guy trying to use unfs to enable nfs sharing between two ESXi boxes, more specifically it was mentioned that linux binaries would work fine in the ESXi service console. One thing that was slightly confusing was that ESXi is x86_64 (64bit) however binaries that you need for the service console have to be 32bit otherwise you’ll get a confusing error that the binaries can’t be found when you try and run them due to busybox’s odd handling of errors. I present below the binaries required for nfs in ESXi :-

nfs binaries for x86

These are pretty easy to use, scp the file over to ESXi and untar it in /tmp al that’s left is to place the files in /tmp/sbin into /sbin and the files in /tmp/etc into /etc. The /etc/exports contains one entry to give access to /vmfs/volumes, which means that accessing the nfs share will give you the UUID paths for the disks containing VM’s and ISOs. To start the nfs server, start portmap first and then start unfsd which should be started the following way (unfsd -d &), this is due to unfsd not being able to disconnect from console on start up (something to do with busybox I assume).

One final note, is that once another machine connect to the nfs share portmap will go start using 50%-70% cpu and will need stopping and starting for other nfs clients. I’m still looking into this, however having a cron job to restart the process every few minutes should do the job.

ESX 4.1 USB install and Password complexity changes

As a point release i’m not sure why VMware decided to completely change the layout of files on the CD ISO along with change various system files, however they have. I suppose one change is beneficial as it improves the method for creating a USB stick which for previous versions of ESXi is documented here. They have also changed console access and ssh access to the hypervisor, which now can be enabled from the orange console screen under TSM (technical support mode) settings.

Writing to a USB stick:

Now the iso contains a simple file called imagedd.bz2 that is found in the root of the iso, which just need bunzip to decompress it and the dd’ing to a USB stick as documented before.

Password complexity:

At the moment there is nothing about this on the internet so it was a case of going through a few files to find it, but previously /etc/pam.d/common-password contained all of the password complexity requirements as documented on the VMware KB. However now all of the password requirements are located in the file /etc/pam.d/system-auth, so this file will need editing if you don’t want insane password requirements for all users.


As previously mentioned i’ve always been a XEN advocate for the hypervisor sitting on the physical machine, given the ready availability of a paravirtualised kernel for my Linux VMs. However a requirement to get to grips with VMware has led me to deploy ESXi on my systems so that I can have a proper look around at the OS and how it manages virtual machines. I’ve got disks all over the place, however my server I use for all my testing has a set up (and has reached capacity) meaning that i can’t use those disks. I found an old IDE disk that I installed in there, however the fiddling around with the oem.tgz(explained another time) never seemed to work for me at this point. So I picked up a USB key for €8 and decided to do a USB boot with the hypervisor on there.

This is pretty straightforward task to do and can be accomplished in two methods of either botching the install halfway through or pulling the image from the install CD and doing a raw write to the USB device. I opted for pulling the image from the CD and dd’ing this image onto my USB key by doing the following methods:

1. Acquire VMware ESXi 4.0 from vmware

2. Mount the CD (in linux by mount -o loop <path to ISO> <mount point>, or double clicking in OSX 😉 )

3. Copy install.tgz from the CD and extract in a working location, which should eventually give you a directory structure.

4. bunzip /usr/lib/Vmware/install/VMware-VMvisor-big-164009-x86_64.dd.bz2 (or equivalent file)

5. dd if=<path to .dd file> of=<path to USB device>

6. Change BIOS settings to boot from USB and boot up.

7. Set IP address, download VSphere client and off you go.

Refer to for any issues